Agricultural mulch refers to the thin agricultural film directly covered in cultivation beds or near the ground. The general thickness is 0.008 ~ 0.015 mm, the base resin is polyethylene.
First, the positive role of plastic film
Raise the soil temperature
The effective accumulated temperature is increased, the growth period is relatively prolonged, and the yield is increased (the warming effect of different colors is different, the warming effect of colorless plastic film is the best, and the silver gray is basically no warming)
② Improve lighting conditions (mulching film and water droplets under the film reflect sunlight)
③ Keep soil moisture (soil moisture), reduce the waste of water resources
(4) Maintain the soil structure (plastic film covering the surface, protect the topsoil, can reduce the erosion of wind and water)
(5) Keep the soil loose (plastic mulch will reduce rain lapping and prevent soil compaction)
⑥ Improve soil fertility. After mulching, the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in the form of evaporation from the soil is greatly reduced, allowing nitrogen fertilizer to be maintained. As soil temperature increases, microbial activity increases and soil organic matter increases
⑦ Prevent diseases and insect pests
⑧ improve crop quality, reach early maturity increase income
Guard against drought and flood
⑩ Weed suppression (black mulch is best)
We will prevent soil salinization by suppressing salt and protecting seedlings
Consequently, suitable cropping areas for various crops are moved northward, thus making more efficient use of land resources
The second, different color film function is different:
In recent years, a variety of colored agricultural films have come into the market. Because of the different absorption and reflection rules of different colors of agricultural films on the spectrum, they have different effects on crop growth, weeds, pests and diseases, and ground temperature. Modern mulch has developed from ordinary mulch to various colored mulch and weeding, insect control and other multi-functional special mulch. Therefore, different colors of agricultural film should be selected according to the characteristics of different crops and planting seasons in the use.
1, ordinary film:
Improve soil temperature, soil moisture, mulch and fertilizer efficiency. There is a certain effect of reflection, in order to improve the plant lower leaf light conditions. Suitable for spring and autumn.
2, Black agricultural film:
? The light transmittance is low, which can effectively prevent the evaporation of soil water and inhibit the growth of weeds, but the warming effect is slower than transparent film. Ground mulch can significantly reduce the ground temperature, inhibit weeds and maintain soil moisture. It is mainly suitable for weeds and vegetables (summer radish, cabbage, spinach, autumn cucumber, evening tomato) and orchards in high temperature season, especially suitable for high temperature cultivation in summer and autumn, which can create a good growth and development environment for crop roots and improve output. At present, the greenhouse strawberry cultivation has been widely promoted black plastic film cover, which not only has a significant promotion of strawberry seedlings and growth, but also the strawberry fruit does not touch the soil, improve the quality of products.
3, silver gray film:
The light transmittance is about 60%, which can reflect ultraviolet rays. The ground cover has the function of cooling, moisturizing and repelling aphids, which can increase the reflected light on the ground and is conducive to fruit coloring. It can repel vegetable, melon and fruit aphid and whitefly, reduce disease, protect soil and water and weed. Suitable for summer and autumn vegetables, melons, tobacco disease prevention and insect and heat - resistant cultivation. Practice has proved that summer and autumn used to cover cucumber, watermelon, tomato, spinach, celery, lettuce, cotton and other crops, not only has a good anti-insect effect, but also can improve the quality of these crops.
4, black and white film:
When the ground is covered, generally let the black face down, white face up. It not only has the effect of black mulching film covering, but also has the effect of reflecting light on white film surface. Suitable for ground cover cultivation of autumn and winter stubble greenhouse vegetables, especially for solanaceous vegetables, the cultivation effect is the most ideal. Thickness 0.02 mm, higher cost price.
5, Blue agricultural film:
The light transmittance is higher than that of white agricultural film under weak light condition, but lower than that of white agricultural film under strong light condition. Suitable for seedling and seedling cultivation, not only the seedling rate is high, but also the seedling is strong, it can inhibit the growth of black spot bacteria of cruciferous vegetables, and has obvious effect of increasing yield and maintaining quality. Very suitable for rice breeding, also can be used for vegetables, cotton, peanuts, strawberries, potatoes and other crops cover cultivation.
6, Green agricultural film:
Can make the green light increase, so that the weed growth is controlled, better weed prevention, improve the yield. Often used for covering beans, eggplant, bell pepper, melon, strawberry and other vegetables and other economic crops cultivation.
7, Red agricultural film:
It can transmit red light and block other color light that is not conducive to crop growth. Therefore, it can meet the needs of rice, corn, sugar beet and other red light, so that crops grow vigorously. Mainly suitable for rice, beet, leek, cucumber and other crops cover. Years of practice has proved that rice seedlings grown under red agricultural film grow well. Sugar content of beet increased; Leek leaves wide meat thick, harvest in advance, increased output; Carrots increase yield.
8, weeding film mulching film:
A certain amount of herbicide is added to kill weeds. Because herbicide has strict selectivity to crops, the wrong use will cause crop harm, so we should choose special weeding mulch according to crop species, do not blindly use, so as not to cause production loss. It is advisable to use it in the plot with many weeds.